Weekly First-aid Topic: "Four-step approach" for on-site first aid
From:Beijing Municipal Health Commission

What can we do before a professional health care provider arrives? You may carry out the "four-step approach" for on-site first aid.
The first step: assess the environment and ensure safety. You should observe the danger of the surrounding environment, and make a preliminary quick judgment on abnormal conditions through field experience, observation, hearing sounds, and smelling to ensure self-safety during the rescue process. The second step: check the condition and carry out preliminary treatment. You should quickly judge the patient's consciousness, breathing, pulse, perception, pupillary response, whether the airway is unobstructed, etc. and always pay attention to the patient's reaction and needs. If there is loss of consciousness, stop breathing or sudden death, and the pulse disappears, CPR should be taken immediately. The third step: call for help. After the initial examination of the on-site condition, you should dial emergency call (120) to call for help, or call the surrounding people to help to let them participate in first aid measures. You should maintain order at the scene, evacuate the crowd, and protect privacy of the injured, arrange pick-up personnel, and if necessary, transfer the injured to a safe place jointly. The fourth step: Further inspection and disposal. Before the ambulance arrives, you can take the materials on the site or do whatever you can to treat the injured. Patients who are unconscious but have breathing can be placed in a recumbent position, and then you could bind up the wound.